Appeasement was a concept popularized by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. Chamberlain, who took office in 1937, took an non-confrontational stance against the growing powers in Germany and Italy, where dictators Adolph Hitler and Benito Mussolini were extending their governmental reach, respectively. One reason for Chamberlain's lax response was his belief that Germany had been treated badly in the First World War. For example, the Prime Minister believed that some of the concessions demanded by Germany were reasonable, such as its claims to Sudentland, the area near Czechoslovakia. Other reasons that Chamberlain tried to appease the Germans and the German allies was because the British wanted peace, didn't have the necessary manpower to conduct a war, and memories of the destruction caused by the First World War. More contributing factors included the belief that a strong Germany would serve as a barrier against the Communist nation of Russia and the misguided belief that Hitler was essentially good. The decision over the Sudentland coalesced in the Munich Crisis.

There were several results from the policy of appeasement. Czechoslovakia was weakened from its loss of land, armies on both sides took some extra time to build an army, Hitler considered France and Britain to be weak, and easily overtaken in battle, which Russia agreed with, becoming allied with Germany. British citizens realized that the policy had weakened their position, but also believed that they had tried their hardest to prevent the war, which improved their moral.

However, the end result of appeasement was more dramatic than simple moral or beliefs. Appeasement resulted in the invasion of Czechoslovakia, and the start of World War II.